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以貌取物

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本网讯 走进一家普通的美国超市,在商品展架之间随便逛个30分钟,其中所陈列的大约30,000种商品会让你眼花缭乱,目不暇接。末了,许多商品都会让你感到值得一试。怎么回事呢?原来是那包装——一个悄然无声却又让人心动的推销员。

箱箱、罐罐、瓶瓶、听听、袋袋、管管,其设计都细致入微,触动内心世界。你是一个好父母吗?你关心环境吗?你想让生活更具魅力吗?你真的不想来点巧克力之类的东西吗?

那模拟货架上的每一个细节,都是想了又想、改了又改、试了又试。而包装设计,更精确到以毫米计,因为,设计者希望你看到的远远不止包装和标签。人们购物时,实际是在认同一种个性、一种态度,甚至是一种信仰。

研究消费者对商品包装的情感反应,其先驱是路易斯·切斯金,他是于20世纪30年代即开始研究市场营销心理的专家。他曾将两个相同的产品进行不同的包装,其中一个用圆圈图案装饰,另一个用三角图案装饰。然后他让试验对象选择,并说出理由。 80%以上的接受试验者选择了带圆圈图案的包装,原因是他们认为里面的东西质量更好。    

"在同前200名接受试验者谈话时,我很难相信这一结果," 切斯金后来写道, "但同1,000名试验对象交谈后,我只好接受这样一个事实,那就是,大多数消费者的感觉从容器转移到了所盛之物上。" 还有一项惊人的发现:在试用了这两件相同的产品以后,人们仍然以压倒的优势喜欢带圆圈图案包装的产品。

切斯金对大量不同类型的产品重复了同样的试验。发现之一是,包装外观对于消费者认识饼干口味和肥皂的洗涤效果有着巨大的影响。切斯金将这种现象叫做"感觉迁移"。正是这种"感觉迁移"成了包装研究的基础。

尽管消费者越来越精明,切斯金的理论仍然有效。一个没有告知品牌的啤酒测试可以重复多次,而品酒者对啤酒的口味和质量却有相当一致的意见。而如果事先让他们看到啤酒瓶子,则这些瓶子就会改变品评的结果。

切斯金实验中最富有戏剧性的一次是用三种不同色彩图案包装润肤霜。试用该霜的小组被告知,要试用的润肤霜有三种配方,并被要求对这些配方作出评估。

试验结果:色彩图案B(所包装的产品)恰到好处;色彩图案C香味不错,但效果欠佳;而色彩图案A十分让人生畏,有几名参试者用后皮肤上起了皮疹,结果只好去咨询医生。但实际上,这三种润肤霜完全相同。这一领域中的一部权威教材这样写道: "一般而言,消费者并不区分产品和包装。在他们看来,往往是产品即包装,而包装即产品。"

 一家颇具影响的包装设计公司将此原则发挥到了牟利的极端程度。该公司为尚不存在的产品设计包装。接着这种包装就经受市场考验,营销理念也得到了改进。这样,只有厂家认为自己稳操胜券,才花钱开发那个产品。一家顶尖的巧克力公司生产一种即将面市的新产品,就是这样出笼的。

色彩也是包装的有机组成部分。关于眼球转动的研究表明,包装的各种要素中,色彩所引起的反应最为迅速。

以一种颇受欢迎的品牌的蔬菜汁为例。数十年来,其标签上的总体布局基本保持不变:西红柿水平排开,四周绿叶环绕,胡萝卜竖直摆放更显夺目。有一点你也许不曾注意,但或许能够感觉到,那就是蔬菜色彩的鲜明夺目。

这些蔬菜色彩所采用的不是杂志和书本中所运用的标准四色工艺,而是五色工艺。这样的设计使得蔬菜具有令你眼花缭乱的色彩,因而具有强烈的诱惑力。

三角形和其他带尖角的图形能够吸引注意力,但切斯金的早期实验表明,人们看到三角形并不表明他们喜欢三角形。色彩也有同样的问题。切斯金指出,最引人注目的颜色是黄色。而黄色用在某些产品身上,有时会产生消极的联想,有时则会使人烦躁。

你逛商场时,会看到包装上有许许多多耀眼的、尖尖的、要爆炸似的图案,充满阳刚之气,多为鲜艳的黄色设计。这些棱角分明的图案引人注意,而在这些图案上方,总是标着 "新型配方""让利29""免费提供"等友好信息。消费者在决定是否将该商品买回家时,考虑的正是这些友善的信息。

具有阴柔美的图案,如圆形和椭圆形意味着完美、柔和、无所不包,这正是包装的根本主题,因为这些图案能够产生最积极的联想, 还必须和某些别的符号配合使用加以改进,才能取得良好的效果。于是,圆形往往同矩形或者粗体字母合用以形成对照:一家公司在用作商标的椭圆中间插入火炬,并镶嵌公司的名字。

显然,人们对于色彩和形状有着本能的反应,但这种反应究竟如何刺激人们购买一盒布丁混合料或是一瓶润肤霜,其心理机制还不十分清楚。显然,这肯定不是理性的过程。 "我无法问你为什么喜欢某种包装,"一位营销咨询人员说,"你也无法告诉我。包装并非悄然无声,它在呼唤——不过它呼唤的是你的心灵。" 

这位咨询人员认为,在某种意义上,人们知道自己做出的购物选择无助于实现自己内心深处的需要。他说:"购物是一种应对之道。" 通过购物,我们可以弥补感觉到的某一方面的不足,以求心理平衡。我们明知这些东西只是空洞的符号,但我们却追求这些鲜艳夺目的小玩艺儿,因为它们能给我们带来安慰,带来满足。从另一层面来看,也许是我们喜欢观看为争取我们青睐而展开的光彩夺目、富于心计的竞争。

 

英文原文

The package as product

During a typical 30-minute shopping trip down the aisles of an average American supermarketa bewildering array of about 30.000 products compete for your attention.Eventually, many will make you believe they are worth a try. How? Packaging—a silent but nevertheless convincing salesman.

Each box, jar, and squeeze bottle; each can, bag, and tube has been carefully designed to speak to your inner self. Are you a good parent? Do you care about the environment? Do you want more glamour in your lifeWouldn,t you really like something chocolate?

Every detail has been carefully considered, revised, and tested on simulated store shelves. Design details are measured in millimeters, for the designers want you to see far more than a container or a label. You are buying a personality, an attitude,, perhaps even a set of beliefs.

A forerunner in the study of people,s emotional response to package was Louis Cheskin, a specialist in the psychology of marketing who began his research in the 1930s. He placed identical products in tow different packages, one decorated with circles,the other with triangles. Then he asked his subjects which product they preferred, and why. Over 80 percent chose the product in the box with the circles;they believed the contents would be of higher quality.

“I had difficulty believing the results after the first 200 interviews,” Cheskin wrote later. “But after 1.000interviews, I had to accept the fact that the majority of consumers transferred the sensation from the containers to its contents.” And there another surprise: even after trying these identical products, people overwhelmingly preferred those in the package with the circles.

Cheskin repeated the experiment for a wide variety of product types. He found, for instance, that the look of the package has a gigantic impact on how biscuits taste or how soaps are perceived to clean. Chescin named the phenomenon “ sensation transfer”. It has since become the basis of packaging research..

Despite the fact that consumers are increasingly more sophisticated, Cheskin,s concept still works. A blind test of beers can be repeated over and over again, with a strong consensus about taste and quality.But when the beer bottles are introduced beforehand, they change the way people taste the beer.

One of the most dramatic version of the Cheskin experiment involved a skin cream placed in packages with three different color schemes. The group testing the cream was told that three different formulas were under consideration, and was asked to judge them.

Resultscolor scheme B was considered just right. Scheme C wai said to have a pleasant fragrance but was not very effective. And scheme A was deemed absolutely threatening. Several participants developed skin rashes after using it and had to consult doctors. Yet all skin creams were exactly the same. As the authoritative textbook on the subject notes, “Consumers generally do not differentiate between a product and its package. Many products are packages—and many packages are products.”

One leading package design firm has carried this principle to a money-making extreme: the firm design package for products that do not yet exist. The package is then tested and the marketing concept refined. Only when it is clear that the firm has a winner on its hands will it need to go to the expense of actually developing the product. A forthcoming product from a top chocolate company was developed in just this manner.

Color is also an integral part of packaging. Studies of eye movement have shown that color triggers the fastest response of any element of a package.

Take, for example, a popular brand of vegetable juice. For decades the general arrangement on the label has stayed more or less the same: a horizontal array of tomatoes, surrounded by leaves and highlighted with vertical carrots. What you might notice but will probably feel is the intensity of the vegetables colors.

The vegetables are not printed with the standard four-color process used in magazines and books, but with five colors. This gives the vegetables a color that dazzles the eye; thus, the vegetable are strongly compelling.

Triangles and other pointed figures attract notice. But as Cheskin,s early experiment proved, just because people can see triangles dosen,t mean they like them. And color presents a similar dilemma. Cheskin thought that the most noticeable color was yellow, which for some products has negative associations and in other cases may just be irritating.

As you walk around a store, you will see a great many eye-catching, pointy,explosive masculine graphic elements on packages, often in bright yellow. These harsh shapes get attention. But placed over them are kindly messages like “New and Improved” “29 cents off”, or “Free Offer”. These kindly messages are what consumers consider when deciding whether to bring the product home.

Feminine forms—circles and ovals that denote completeness, softness, and inclusiveness—provide the fundamental themes for packages, because these forms have the most positive associations. But to work well, they must be also modified with some other symbol. Thus, circles are played against rectangular shapes or bold lettering: the oval of one company,s trademark is spilt by a torch and will filled with the company,s name.

There is no doubt that people have instinctive responses to colors and shapes. But just how these responses initiate the purchase of a box of a pudding mix or a jar of skin cream is not well understood. The process is certainly not rational. “I can,t ask you why you like a certain package,” says a marketing consultant, “and you can,t tell me. The package is not silent. It screams—but it screams to your inner mind.”

The consultant argues that people know, on some level, that the purchases they make will not fulfill their deepest wants. “Buying things is a way of coping,” he says. Buying things offers compensation for the deficiencies we feel in oursevels. We may know they are empty symbols, but we pursue these bright trifles because they console and satisfy us. And perhaps because, at still another level, we enjoy watching their gloriously sophisticated competition for our favors.

 

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日期:2012-10-15
录入:henanpack
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